This is a frequently asked question. People will see "PCSWID PG1 >400g" on a government document, and wonder what it means.

This refers to an allegation of possession of a controlled substance in Penalty Group 1, in a quantity of more than 400 grams, with the intent to distribute.

  • PCS = Possession of Controlled Substance;


When it comes to theft crimes in Texas, the line between simple theft and more serious charges like robbery or aggravated robbery can sometimes be blurry. Today, we're going to explore the differences between robbery and aggravated robbery, the punishments associated with each crime, and the potential defenses that may be available to those charged with these offenses.

Robbery: The Basics

Under Texas law, robbery is considered a more severe form of theft. It's classified as a second-degree felony, which means that a conviction can result in substantial prison time and hefty fines. The primary distinction between theft and robbery is the use of force, threat, or fear during the commission of the crime.

To convict someone of robbery, the prosecution must prove that the defendant:


When two or more people join forces to commit a crime, they can face charges of conspiracy or aiding and abetting. These legal concepts are central to both Texas and federal law, but they have distinct features and implications. This blog post will provide an overview of conspiracy and aiding and abetting in Texas and federal law, highlighting the differences between them.


In Texas, conspiracy is defined under Section 15.02 of the Texas Penal Code. A person commits the offense of conspiracy if he or she agrees with one or more persons that they will engage in criminal conduct and one of them performs an overt act in pursuance of the agreement. The overt act requirement distinguishes Texas conspiracy law from federal conspiracy law, which does not require an overt act for drug conspiracies.

Under federal law, conspiracy is a separate offense from the underlying crime. The prosecution must prove that the defendant knowingly and voluntarily entered into an agreement to commit a crime, but it is not required to show that the defendant committed an overt act in furtherance of the conspiracy, particularly in drug-related cases.



Money laundering is a significant issue that plagues economies worldwide. As a top Houston criminal-defense lawyer, it is crucial to have a thorough understanding of this intricate crime and how it impacts clients. This blog post aims to provide an overview of money laundering, its stages, and the legal consequences one might face if charged with this offense in Texas.

What is Money Laundering?

Generally, money laundering is the process of concealing the origins of illegally obtained funds, typically by passing them through a complex sequence of financial transactions. This process is designed to make the money appear legitimate, so it can be used without arousing suspicion. Money laundering often involves proceeds from crimes such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, fraud, or tax evasion.The Stages of Money Laundering:Money laundering typically involves three stages:

  1. Placement: This is the initial stage where the "dirty money" is introduced into the financial system. Criminals may deposit large sums of cash into a bank account or purchase high-value assets like real estate, vehicles, or jewelry.


Navigating the complexities of the criminal justice system can be confusing, especially when you or a loved one are dealing with the aftermath of a criminal conviction. Two legal avenues often come up in discussions: appeal and habeas corpus. Though they may seem similar (and laypeople often think of both as "appeals") they serve different purposes in the Texas criminal justice system. In this blog post, we'll explore the differences between appeals and habeas corpus in Texas criminal cases.

Appeal: Reviewing Legal Errors Made During Trial

An appeal is a legal process that occurs after a trial and conviction. When a defendant, now referred to as the appellant, believes that legal errors were made during their trial, he or she can file an appeal with a higher court to review the trial court's decision. Legal errors can include incorrect jury instructions, improper admission of evidence, and insufficient evidence to support the conviction.

It's essential to note that during an appeal, the appellant is generally not allowed to introduce new evidence or facts. The appellate court's focus is solely on reviewing the trial court's record and legal arguments presented by both parties. The purpose of an appeal is to ensure that the trial was conducted according to the law, and this review is limited to arguments that the trial court was aware of-generally, arguments that trial counsel made.

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